Schwann cells (SC) play a crucial role in axonal biology not only providing trophic support but also participating in the regulation of different processes during axonal development, maturation, and regeneration. A recently described form of communication between SC and axons is through extracellular vesicles called exosomes (Ex). It has been established SC-Ex participation in physiological and pathophysiological processes, e.g. during myelination and regenerative conditions. One of the main goals of regenerative medicine is to find new cell sources to be used in cell therapies for the treatment of degenerative diseases. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdSC) provide a promising tool due to their availability through a low-invasive method, their high rate of proliferation, and their ability to differentiate into other cell types, including SC (dSC-AdSC). Thus, the present work evaluates the effect of SC, AdSC and dSC-AdSC derived Ex on neurite outgrowth and axon protection in vitro. To this end, SC, AdSC and dSC-AdSC were cultured and Ex were obtained by ultracentrifugation. Using dorsal root ganglia cultures, Ex effects were evaluated in terms of neurite outgrowth and axonal integrity after treatment with vinblastine or mechanical axotomy, showing significant differences after dCS-AdSC Ex treatment. Our results demonstrate positive effects of dSC-AdSC Ex on neurite outgrowth and axonal protection, bringing about a potential acellular tool for regenerative strategies.