Fetuses suffering intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at high risk of brain injury and motor disabilities. Vascular rarefaction and inflammatory processes have been associated with these pathologies. We previously observed a delay in cerebellar layers stratification and neurodevelopmental impairment in spontaneously hypertensive rat pups (SHR), a proposed model of IUGR. In this work, SHR brains were obtained at P7 and P14; age matched normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats served as controls. The morphology and number of medium-caliber vessels was studied with Masson’s trichrome. Our results indicate that SHR showed a significant increase in the number of these vessels from both gray and white matter. We also performed double labeling for anti-Caveolin-1 and isolectin B4 to study microvasculature and microglial cells. No changes were found in the amount and ramifications of brain microvessels. A significant increase in the number of ameboid microglia was noticed in the cerebellum of the SHR at P7 and P14. GFAP expression, an important component of astrocytes cytoplasm, was increased in homogenates from motor cortex that included corpus callosum, and its localization in this area was confirmed by GFAP IFI. Insulin-like growth factor gene expression was increased in the cerebellum of SHR; probably related to the significant increase in the number of ameboid microglia. We conclude that SHR brain shows vascular adaptations and glial activation in response to gestational hypoxia.