We have demonstrated the interplay between Notch and TGFβ signaling in adult neural progenitor cell cultures. In these cultures, TGFβ favored the oligodendroglial cell fate and oligodendroglial precursor cell (OPC) proliferation, and induced OPC differentiation and maturation. Considering the possible participation of TGFβ in the remyelination process, the aim of the present work is to study, both in vitro and in vivo, the changes induced by this cytokine on OPC maturation and on the inflammatory process. To analyze TGFβ effects on OPC maturation, in vitro experiments were carried out on OPC primary cultures. After OPC treatment with TGFβ for 3 days, no changes were observed in the percentage of PDGFRα+ and MBP+ populations compared to control. However, the presence of TGFβ induced an increase in the morphological complexity of OPC and mature oligodendrocytes. For in vivo experiments, control and 14-day-cuprizone (CPZ)-treated rats were intraperitoneally injected with TGFβ or its vehicle 3 days before removing the toxin from the diet. Preliminary results obtained 0, 3 and 7 days after CPZ withdrawal showed lesser microgliosis in TGFβ-treated animals. Moreover, TGFβ induced a decrease in phagocytic microglia at 3 days. These anti-inflammatory effects went together with a higher number of MAG+ cells at 0 and 3 days. These results suggest that TGFβ might have positive action in the remyelination process, although more experiments are necessary to confirm these observations.