The Science of Learning (SoL) is a multi-disciplinary science that ranges from the very basic cellular and molecular science of how an organism learns, to how children and adolescents use their brains, bodies, and sociality to best learn in cultures and classrooms, to methods for augmenting and restoring the capacity to learn. The trauma of poverty and poor health adds even more complexity, regardless of culture or country. Our growing global population of children exists in disparate cultures and circumstances yet face common challenges requiring coordinated and effective solutions. Great affluence is juxtaposed with extraordinary poverty; education and health care crises persist in many nations. This is an incredible loss of human potential. Many nations focus resources on restoring mental and physical health but lack sufficient understanding of what every child needs to learn, flourish and prevent later developmental problems. Conserving, restoring, nurturing, and optimizing the most basic ability to learn and thrive, especially for those children exposed to the worst of economic and social circumstances, requires concerted action by a global community of scientists, technologists, educators, policy makers, activists, and philanthropists. Neuroscience has the opportunity to play a central role in the science of learning, making a pre-emptive effort to place the brain-body and learning as a motivator to designing learning contexts that vary according to needs.